FAMAGUSTA CITY WALLS
The walls that surrounded the city until 1489 were tall but also quite thin structurally. When the Venetians took the town, they started fortifying these defenses especially to counter the Ottomans. In particular, the fortifications by the sea, the Martinengo Bastion, and the land gate are products of those efforts. A 46-meter-wide moat was dug along the periphery of the walls as well. The walls surrounding the city were three kilometers long, roughly 18 meters tall, and nine meters wide. There are fourteen bastions along the walls. (In order from southeast to north, namely: 1) Arsenal, 2) Mare (Marine Gate), 3) Othello - Castella, 4) Signoria, 5) Diamate, 6) Mozzo, 7) Martinengo, 8) Pulacazaro, 9) Moratto, 10) Diocare, 11) Ravelin, 12) Santa Napa, 13) Andurizzi, 14) Campo Santa, and an interior tower (Othello’s Tower), and two of the original entrances, the land and marine gates. Despite all the Venetians’ fortifications, the city was conquered by the Ottomans on August 1, 1571. After suffering significant damages during the conquest, the city defenses were repaired by the Ottomans.